When reading to toddlers, books with pictures are ‘just right’


First Things First Article by Ofelia Gonzalez

Researchers call it the Goldilocks effect.

They set out to see what is happening in a young child’s brain—in this case, 4-year-olds—when they were read the same story with pictures, without pictures or when they watched an animated cartoon. Just like “Goldilocks and the Three Bears,” the study found that one method was too cold, one was too hot and one just right.

According to a recent article from National Public Radio, as the children heard the story, an MRI machine scanned their brains to see which regions of the brain appeared more active and connected.

Story without pictures = “Too cold”

For the children hearing the story without pictures, the brain networks were active, but there was less connectivity, which researchers believe is evidence that they “were straining to understand.”

Animated story = “Too hot”

For the children who watched the cartoon of the same story, there was lots of activity in the audio and visual perception parts of their brain, but not connecting elsewhere. Researchers believe that “the animation was doing all the work for the child.” The kids watching the cartoon also had the worst understanding of the story.

Story with pictures = “Just right”

The children’s understanding of the story was highest when the book was read aloud and they had illustrations to go along with it. Researchers also saw increased connectivity between and among all brain networks they were looking at, including visual perception and language.

This type of information can help parents and caregivers make the seemingly small but important decisions when it comes to reading to toddlers.

“When we read to our children, they are doing more work than meets the eye,” lead author Dr. John Hutton told NPR. “It’s that muscle they’re developing bringing the images to life in their minds.”

What is the Early Option Pill?


Medication Abortion/ Chemical Abortion/ Abortion Pill/ Mifeprex + Misoprostol (Information taken from manufacturer’s website.)

  • FDA approved this option up to 70 days (10 weeks) since your last menstrual period began.
  • Day 1:
    • Mifeprex (1 tablet) will be given to you in the clinic, office or hospital.
    • Taking this medication will block the action of progesterone, preventing continued healthy uterine-wall development or successful implantation of the embryo.
  • Day 2:
    • Take 4 Misoprostol tablets (prescription only) 24 to 48 hours after taking Mifeprex.
    • Taking this medication will cause uterine contractions to expel the embryo/fetus.
    • When the pregnancy is passed from the uterus, you will have bleeding and cramping that will likely be heavier than your usual period.
    • About 2 to 7 out of 100 women taking Mifeprex will need a surgical procedure because the pregnancy did not completely pass from the uterus or to stop bleeding.

Source: http://www.earlyoptionpill.com/what-can-i-expect

Have more questions? Need to talk through your specific situation? That is why we are here. Click here to find a location in your area.


Here are some things you need to know before you have an abortion in Arizona:

  • Abortion is only covered by certain health plans if the woman’s life is endangered or her health is severely compromised. AHCCCS does NOT provide coverage for medically necessary abortions.
  • The cost of an abortion depends on how far along you are in the pregnancy.
    • A first trimester abortion (up to 12 weeks post-fertilization) typically costs between $450 and $950.
    • Second trimester abortions rise in cost every week to two weeks depending on the facility. An abortion at 20 weeks averages about $1,500.
  • A woman must undergo an ultrasound at least 24 hours before obtaining an abortion; the provider must offer her the option to view the image.
  • A woman must receive state-directed, in person counseling, and then wait 24 hours before the procedure is provided.
  • The use of telemedicine to administer medication abortion is prohibited.
  • Persons under the age of 18 seeking an abortion must either have the notarized written permission of one of their parents/legal guardians or permission from a Superior Court Judge.

Have more questions? Need to talk through your specific situation? That is why we are here. Click here to find a location in your area.

Planned Parenthood of Flagstaff

30, Flirty, and Abstinent


Written by Mandy Hall, VP of Operations, Phoenix

About a month ago, I had the opportunity to meet up with my beautiful friend Rachel to talk about her decision to remain abstinent until marriage.  When I say beautiful, I mean a bombshell that has been engaged twice (we’re talking karats!) in the past 5 years, had serious relationships in between and who has been pursued harder than a buck in hunting season during the course of her adult life. She has found compatibility with church-goers, volleyball players and match.com-ers. It hasn’t been easy, but through it all, she’s managed to hold out for her future husband.

M: Rachel, how old are you?
R: 35½    

M: And you are still a virgin?
R: Yes.

M: That is seriously amazing!  What is your driving force behind that decision?
R: Honestly, it’s obedience.  I know that is what the Lord wants for me and what He asks us to do.  It would be much easier to just give in.

M: Being in your mid-30’s, do people think you’re crazy when they find out you’re still a virgin
R: Oh yeah.  They usually don’t believe me.

M: And you have been engaged twice before?
R: Yes, in the past 5 years.

M: Why did you break it off?
R: I knew deep down they weren’t the one for me, but I just went with it and ended up prolonging the inevitable.  

M: Do you regret calling it off with either of them?
R: No.  It would not have been a good marriage if I went through with it.  They were good guys, just not right for me and I wasn’t right for them.

M: How did you address the “no sex before marriage” with both your fiance's?
R: Right when I start dating someone, I let them know upfront that sex is not something I will compromise on and they need to decide if they are okay with that.  As for my fiancés, luckily both of them were big on convictions and never even remotely pressured me to give in. They both set physical boundaries that they knew they needed to prevent themselves from going too far.

M: What is usually the response?
R: Some guys bail right away, others say they were fine with that, but then tried to convince me to give in.  Some guys tried to stick around, but said they couldn’t do it anymore without sex. Even Christian guys tried to convince me that we should be able to at least do “other” things and that it wasn’t really sex.  Some even withheld emotional support or physical interaction that I need in a relationship (I love to cuddle) because I wasn’t giving them what they wanted and needed.

M: How did you handle that?
R: It made me angry that they felt like it justified selfish behavior, when what they were asking me to do goes against my morals, belief system and self worth.  

M: Have you ever felt like giving in?  
R: Yes and no.  Part of me just wants to say forget it, it would be so much easier to just get it over with, but a bigger part of me knows that there is a good reason behind remaining abstinent and I just have to trust that God knows better than I do and He tells us to wait until marriage for our own benefit.

M: What reasons do you think that is?
R: Protection from emotional, physical and spiritual pain.  Regret and disease. Giving it all up for nothing in return.  No commitment.

M: Do you have any tips for anyone struggling with remaining abstinent?  
R: Don’t settle.  Stay faithful to your values, because it will pay off.  Go with your gut when you feel it isn’t the right person.  

M: What boundaries do you put in place and how do you enforce those boundaries in order to not go too far?
R: I know who I am and I know how intense I can get with kissing and cuddling before it starts to go the wrong direction.  I tell my boyfriend to do the same. If he can’t handle much before wanting it all, we do minimal amounts of kissing. I have to respect his boundaries and not cause him to stumble.

How do we get to a place where abstinence is the new “normal”?  It’s by education and teaching that self control is a choice. How are those who never discuss the topic of sex, with adults who care about their well being, really to know what to expect and what it’s supposed to be about?  Did you know that Living Hope Centers has a youth outreach program that goes into our schools? Our STARS program has been impacting local youth in the White Mountains for almost 3 years now. It is our goal to train up our youth in life/occupational skills and self worth.  If we can help guide them to paths of unhindered, successful decision making for their future, they can impact their peers to do the same and bless their future spouses by telling them, “You were worth the wait.”


Why Talk to US about Abortion?


LHC is Pro-Grace. This means we are Pro-YOU. Yes, you. The one reading this now.

We do not perform or refer for abortions. This means we do not get ANY money if you choose to have an abortion.

We are not an adoption agency. This means we do not have a list of hopeful parents waiting in the wings.

We do not charge for ANY services WHATSOEVER. Zero.

We do not receive ANY grants based on services rendered. All of our funding comes from private donations. That means real people send us money so that we have the resources to help real people like you.  

Since we truly have nothing to gain OR lose — from your unplanned pregnancy — LHC is uniquely qualified to walk beside you as you sort through your options. Since 1997, we have been providing women and men a place to consider “what next?” We know that every situation, every pregnancy and every person is different. Our goal is not to judge or shame anyone. We want to help you consider every option so that YOU can make the decision that is best for YOU.  

What you can expect if you decide to utilize LHC resources:

  • 100% Confidentiality
  • 100% Free pregnancy test
  • 100% Free ultrasound
  • 100% Pressure-Free

Have more questions? Need to talk through your specific situation? That is why we are here. Click here to find a location in your area.